A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from goodessay.pw
Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer ,   some dating back to BC. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about BC and those at Nineveh about BC showing a library classification system.
The tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet. The colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, and any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. Eventually, the clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Unfortunately, due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, which is why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia.
The library was built to store 12, scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of written books as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC.
The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in Deipnosophistae. All these libraries were Greek. The cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence.
By the time of Augustus, there were public libraries near the forums of Rome. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the Roman Forum and the Capitoline Hill. Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by illiterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases armaria of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum , apparently the villa of Caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site.
Remains of the Library of Celsus at Ephesus In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Rome's first public library was established by Asinius Pollio. Pollio was a lieutenant of Julius Caesar and one of his most ardent supporters.
After his military victory in Illyria, Pollio felt he had enough fame and fortune to create what Julius Caesar had sought for a long time: It was the first to employ an architectural design that separated works into Greek and Latin. All subsequent Roman public libraries will have this design. During this construction, Augustus created two more public libraries. The first was the library of the Temple of Apollo on the Palatine, often called the Palatine library , and the second was the library of the Porticus of Octaviae.
Vespasian's library was constructed in the Forum of Vespasian , also known as the Forum of Peace, and became one of Rome's principal libraries. The Bibliotheca Pacis was built along the traditional model and had two large halls with rooms for Greek and Latin libraries containing the works of Galen and Lucius Aelius. Trajan's Column separated the Greek and Latin rooms which faced each other.
Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features.
Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centres, built from the start with a library, a two-room arrangement with one room for Greek and one for Latin texts. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Library of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: There were a few institutional or royal libraries which were open to an educated public such as the Serapeum collection of the Library of Alexandria , once the largest library in the ancient world ,  but on the whole collections were private.
In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books, there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks.
In all recorded cases, the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway.
Most of the works in catalogs were of a religious nature, such as volumes of the Bible or religious service books. In the early Middle Ages, Aristotle was more popular.
Additionally, there was quite a bit of censoring within libraries of the time; many works that were "scientific and metaphysical" were not included in the majority of libraries during that time period.
Cicero was also an especially popular author along with the histories of Sallust. One of the most popular was Ovid, mentioned by approximately twenty French catalogues and nearly thirty German ones. Han Chinese scholar Liu Xiang established the first library classification system during the Han dynasty ,  and the first book notation system. At this time, the library catalogue was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags.
Malatestiana Library of Cesena , the first European civic library  During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods, there was no Rome of the kind that ruled the Mediterranean for centuries and spawned the culture that produced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma. Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan.
As such, many classical Greek works, written on scrolls, were left to decay as only Christian texts were thought fit for preservation in a codex, the progenitor of the modern book. Thus a seventeenth-century edition of the Ignatian epistles, in Mar Saba, had copied onto its last pages, probably in the early eighteenth century, a passage allegedly from the letters of Clement of Alexandria".
In Byzantium, much of this work devoted to preserving Hellenistic thought in codex form was performed in scriptoriums by monks.
These libraries were devoted solely to the education of the monks and were seen as essential to their spiritual development. As a result, many of these Greek works were copied, and thus saved, in monastic scriptoriums. As a result, Byzantium revived Classical models of education and libraries. Constantine himself wanted such a library but his short rule denied him the ability to see his vision to fruition. His son Constantius II made this dream a reality and created an imperial library in a portico of the royal palace.
Themistius set about a bold program to create an imperial public library that would be the centerpiece of the new intellectual capital of Constantinople. Themeistius hired calligraphers and craftsman to produce the actual codices. He also appointed educators and created a university-like school centered around the library. Despite this, he had a profound impact on the imperial library and sought both Christian and pagan books for its collections.
The Library of the Patriarchate of Constantinople was founded most likely during the reign of Constantine the Great in the 4th century. The library, which employed a librarian and assistants, may have been originally located in the Patriarch's official residence before it was moved to the Thomaites Triclinus in the 7th century.
While much is not known about the actual library itself, it is known that many of its contents were subject to destruction as religious in-fighting ultimately resulted in book burnings.
Many of these were owned by church members and the aristocracy. Cassiodorus , minister to Theodoric, established a monastery at Vivarium in the toe of Italy modern Calabria with a library where he attempted to bring Greek learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred and secular for future generations.
As its unofficial librarian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century. Islamic lands[ edit ] Inside a Qur'anic library in Chinguetti , Mauritania By the 8th century, first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of papermaking from China, with a paper mill already at work in Baghdad in Early paper was called bagdatikos, meaning "from Baghdad", because it was introduced to the west mainly by this city.
They were called "house of knowledge" or dar al-'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. In Shiraz , Adhud al-Daula d. The buildings were topped with domes, and comprised an upper and a lower story with a total, according to the chief official, of rooms In each department , catalogues were placed on a shelf Organization was a strength of Islamic libraries during the Golden Age 7th—14th century.
In this period, books were organized by subject. Within the subject, the materials were further organized by when the libraries gained the item, not by last name of the author or the title of the book.
Also, Islamic libraries may be the first to have implemented a catalogue of owned materials. The content of a bookshelf was recorded on paper and attached to the end of shelf. Arab-Islamic people also were very favorable of public knowledge.
Public libraries were very popular along with mosque, private, and academic libraries. Instead of being available to the elite of society, such as caliphs and princes, information was something that was offered to everyone. Some of the libraries were said to let patrons check out up to items. These buildings were also made for comfort of the readers and information seekers. It was said that the rooms had carpets for sitting and reading comfortably.
Also, openings such as doors and windows were secured closed as to protect patrons against cold drafts. Others were victim of wars and religious strife in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in West Africa , remain intact and relatively unchanged. Another ancient library from this period which is still operational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad , which has been operating for more than six centuries.
From there they eventually made their way into other parts of Christian Europe. These copies joined works that had been preserved directly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman originals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made of Byzantine works.
Education with Integrity
The resulting conglomerate libraries are the basis of every modern library today. Buddhist scriptures , educational materials, and histories were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia.
In Burma , a royal library called the Pitakataik was legendarily founded by King Anawrahta ;  in the 18th century, British envoy Michael Symes , on visiting this library, wrote that "it is not improbable that his Birman majesty may possess a more numerous library than any potentate, from the banks of the Danube to the borders of China".
In Thailand, libraries called ho trai were built throughout the country, usually on stilts above a pond to prevent bugs from eating at the books. Thus, "the onus of being the last ' People of the Book ' engendered an ethos of [librarianship]"  early on and the establishment of important book repositories throughout the Muslim world has occurred ever since.
Like the Christian libraries, they mostly contained books which were made of paper , and took a codex or modern form instead of scrolls; they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities, from Timbuktu to Afghanistan and modern day Pakistan.
In Aleppo , for example, the largest and probably the oldest mosque library, the Sufiya, located at the city's Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large book collection of which 10, volumes were reportedly bequeathed by the city's most famous ruler, Prince Sayf al-Dawla. Modern Islamic libraries for the most part do not hold these antique books; many were lost, destroyed by Mongols ,  or removed to European libraries and museums during the colonial period.
Lending was a means by which books could be copied and spread. In , the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works of mercy". Shelves built above and between back-to-back lecterns were the beginning of bookpresses.
The chain was attached at the fore-edge of a book rather than to its spine.