Nonfictional prose - The essay: In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay. Before the word itself was coined in the 16th century by Montaigne and Bacon, what came to be called an essay was called a treatise, and its attempt to treat a serious theme with. This is a lesson about how to write a synthesis essay, which is an advanced type of writing whereby the writer chooses a topic, asserts a claim, selects and combines sources, then constructs an. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. In a persuasive essay in which you cite multiple sources, it's important to strike the right balance and use your sources to support your points without depending on them too much. The Tempest is one of Shakespeare's most popular plays, both in the classroom and in the theatre, and this revision brings the Arden Third series edition right up-to-date.A completely new section of the introduction discusses new thinking about Shakespeare's sources for the play and examines his treatment of colonial themes, as well as covering key productions since this edition was first.
The essay In modern literatures, the category of nonfictional prose that probably ranks as the most important both in the quantity and in the quality of its practitioners is the essay. Modern origins Before the word itself was coined in the 16th century by Montaigne and Bacon, what came to be called an essay was called a treatise , and its attempt to treat a serious theme with consistency deprived it of the seductive charm relished in the later examples of that form of literature.
Not until the Renaissance, with its increasing assertion of the self, was the flexible and deliberately nonchalant and versatile form of the essay perfected by Montaigne. Montaigne , who established the term essay, left his mark on almost every essayist who came after him in continental Europe, and perhaps even more in English-speaking countries. Emerson made him one of his six Representative Men along with others of the stature of Plato, Shakespeare, and Goethe. Eliot declared him to be the most important writer to study for an insight into the literature of France.
With Montaigne, the essay achieved for the first time what it can achieve better than any other form of writing, except perhaps the epistolary one: It gave the writer a way of reaching the secret springs of his behaviour, of seizing the man and the author at once in his contradictions, in his profound disunity, and in his mobility.
Now he set out to accept himself whole, with his body and his physical and behavioural peculiarities, and thereby repudiate medieval asceticism. He would portray his foibles and unworthiness, hoping to rise above his own mediocrity, or, at the other extreme, he would exalt himself in the hope that he might become the man he depicted.
Montaigne in his essays pursued an ethical purpose, but with no pompousness or rhetoric. He offered an ideal that was adopted by his successors for centuries: But, unlike medieval Christian writers, he would not sacrifice to others the most dearly cherished part of himself. To others he would lend himself, but his personality and his freedom were his own, and his primary duty was to become a wiser human being.
No essayist after Montaigne touched on so many varied aspects of life with such an informal, felicitous, and brilliant style. The influence of the essay and of genres allied to it, such as maxims, portraits, and sketches, proved second to none in molding the behaviour of the cultured classes, first in Italy, then in France, and, through French influence, in most of Europe in the 17th century.
With the advent of a keener political awareness with the age of Enlightenment, in the 18th century, the essay became all-important as the vehicle for a criticism of society and of religion. Because of its flexibility, its brevity , and its potential both for ambiguity and for allusions to current events and conditions, it was an ideal tool for philosophical reformers.
The Federalist Papers in America and the tracts of the French Revolutionaries, are among the countless examples of attempts during this period to improve the condition of man through the essay. The advantage of this form of writing was that it was not required to conform to any unity of tone or to similar strictures assigned to other genres since it was for a long time not even considered a genre. After ponderous apologies for traditional faith failed to repulse the onslaught of deism and atheism, traditionalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, such as Burke and Coleridge, abandoned unwieldy dogmatic demonstrations in favour of the short, provocative essay.
In the defense of the past, it served as the most potent means of educating the masses. French Catholics, German pietists, and a number of individual English and American authors confided to the essay their dismay at what they saw as modern vulgarity and a breakdown of the coherence of the Western tradition.
Creative writers resorted to it to admonish their compatriots when they seemed too selfishly unconcerned by the tragedies of the world. Lewis Mumford , Allen Tate , and other literary and social critics became crusaders for moral and spiritual reform; others seized upon the essay for scathingly ironical and destructive criticism of their culture: Mencken — , a self-appointed foe of prejudices , substituted his own for those he trounced in his contemporaries.
In other new countries, or in cultures acquiring an awareness of their own ambitious identity, the essay became semipolitical, earnestly nationalistic, and often polemical, playful, or bitter. Such essays sometimes succeeded in shaking the elite out of its passivity. In Canada Olivar Asselin — used the essay to advocate the development of a genuine French-Canadian literature.
Other European heirs to this tradition of the essay include Stefan Zweig and Hugo von Hofmannsthal in Austria and Thomas Mann and Bertolt Brecht in Germany; their sprightly and incisive essays on the arts can be traced to the 19th century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.
Entertainment One of the functions of literature is to please and to entertain; and the essay, as it grew into the biggest literary domain of all, did not lose the art of providing escape.
Ernest Renan —92 , one of the most accomplished French masters of the essay, found relief from his philosophical and historical studies in his half-ironical considerations on love, and Anatole France — , his disciple , and hosts of others have alternated playful essays with others of high seriousness. Sports, games, and other forms of relaxation have not been so often or so felicitously treated.
Philosophy and politics Serious speculations, on the other hand, have tended to overburden the modern essay, especially in German and in French, and to weigh it with philosophy almost as pedantic as that of academic treatises , though not as rigorous. Apart from philosophical speculation, which most readers prefer in limited quantities, the favourite theme of many modern essays has been speculation on the character of nations.
It is indeed difficult to generalize on the national temper of a nation or on the characteristics of a given culture. The authors who have done it—Emerson in his essay on English Traits , Hippolyte Taine in his studies of the English people, Alexis de Tocqueville in his Democracy in America , —blended undeniable conclusions with controversial assertions. Rather than systematic studies, desultory essays that weave anecdotes , intuitions , and personal remarks, ever open to challenge, have proved more effective in attempting to delineate cultures.
In the 20th century, the masters of this form of writing were among the most able in the art of essay writing: Some nations are much more prone than others to self-scrutiny.
Several of the finest Spanish essayists were vexed by questions of what it meant to be a Spaniard, especially after the end of the 19th century when Spain was compelled to put an end to its empire. A Spanish-born essayist, George Santayana — , was one of the most accomplished masters of written English prose; because of his cosmopolitan culture and the subtlety of his insights, he was one of the most percipient analysts of the English and of the American character.
Laments on the decline of the essay in the 20th century were numerous after the s, when articles in most journals tended to become shorter and to strive for more immediate effect. As a result, the general reader grew accustomed to being attacked rather than seduced.
Still, the 20th century could boast of the critical essays of Virginia Woolf in England, of Edmund Wilson in America, and of Albert Thibaudet and Charles du Bos in France, all of whom maintained the high standards of excellence set by their predecessors of the previous century.
For the essay requires vast and varied information, yet without pedantry or excessive specialization. It must give the impression of having been composed spontaneously, with relish and zest. It should communicate an experience or depict a personality with an air of dilettantism, and of love of composition, and it should make accessible to the reader knowledge and reflection and the delight of watching a fine mind at work.
The essayist should possess the virtues that one of the most influential English essayists, Matthew Arnold , praised in Culture and Anarchy It only recovered its supreme rank in nonfictional prose in the 18th century.
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In the 18th century Voltaire , tersely and corrosively, and Edward Gibbon , with more dignity, established history again as one of the great literary arts. After an eclipse during the first half of the 20th century, when erudition and distrust of elaborate style prevailed, the poetry of history was again praised by the most scrupulous practitioners of that discipline.
Poetry, in that context , does not mean fiction or unfaithfulness to facts, or a mere prettification, which would be tantamount to falsification; rather, it is the recognition that, as historian G. They well know that, for modern history, facts are so plentiful and so very diverse that they are only meaningful insofar as the historian selects from them, places them in a certain order, and interprets them.
After World War II, as history drew increasingly on sociology, anthropology, political and philosophical speculation, and psychoanalysis, the conviction that objectivity could be maintained by a scholar dealing with the past was questioned and in large measure renounced. Nietzsche , who had sharply questioned the historical methods of his German countrymen in the s, stressed the need to relate history to the present and to present it in a living and beautiful form, if it is to serve the forces of life.
Many reasons account for the brilliance, and the impact, of this branch of nonfictional prose. Modern man has a powerful interest in origins—of civilization, of Christianity, of the world initiated by the Renaissance, or the French Revolution , or the rise of the masses.
History invites an explanation of what is in terms of its genesis, not statically but in the process of becoming. A primary factor in the increasing importance of history was the bewilderment concerning the revolutions that occurred in or threatened so many countries in the latter part of the 20th century.
As fiction, philosophy, and the exact sciences failed to provide a plausible explanation, many anguished readers turned to the record of brutal change in earlier periods. The historians who addressed themselves to those immense subjects, with their myriad ramifications, often composed monumental works of a synthetical character, such as those of Arnold Toynbee or Henri Pirenne , but they also cultivated the essay.