During life’s inevitable shifts, these tools & teachings help you find calm in chaos, ground & centre you, giving you a little control in how to respond—in even the trickiest of circumstances. ESSAYS OR COUNSELS. CIVIL AND MORAL OF TRUTH. HAT is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer. Certainly there be, that delight in giddiness, and count it a bondage to fix a belief; affecting free-will in thinking, as well as in acting. Research and analysis into the fact and fiction in The Day After Tomorrow movie as it relates to Global Warming and Cooling and the cessation of the Gulf Stream current, affecting air temperatures. There is a link to supporting student essays that can be used in the classroom while watching the film. Written by goodessay.pw, goodessay.pw THE DIALOGUES OF LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA BOOK I TO LUCILIUS ON PROVIDENCE+. Why, though there is a Providence, some Misfortunes befall Good Men. INTRODUCTION. The special subject of the greater part of the letters and essays of Schiller contained in this volume is Aesthetics; and before passing to any remarks on his treatment of the subject it will be useful to offer a few observations on the nature of this topic, and on its treatment by the philosophical spirit of different ages.
- Aesthetical Essays of Friedrich Schiller by Friedrich Schiller
- When Things Go Wrong—15 Tools Inspired By Eastern Wisdom to Find Stillness in a Storm Part I
Good and Bad Science as Presented in the Movie Introduction and Background Information Global Warming is a familiar topic that shows up frequently news headlines, is taught in science classes and explored in depth in science magazines.
While one degree may not seem all that significant the fact is that such an increase has had an impact on global sea levels due to the melting of Arctic, Antarctic and Greenland Ice.
The Antarctic Larsen Ice Sheet has collapsed. Ironically the collapse of the Larsen Ice Shelf actually occurred after it had been written into the movie.
Aesthetical Essays of Friedrich Schiller by Friedrich Schiller
Greenland's ice sheet is predicted to melt if global temperatures rise by 5. It stated that "Dead Zones" have increased by one third in just two years, bringing the number from to Dead Zones are areas of the world's oceans where blooms of tiny plants known as phytoplankton, along with the bacteria that consume them, have depleted the oxygen that fish rely upon for their very existence.
Not only are fish species becoming less plentiful as food but they are also in danger of extinction. The causes are the dumping of pollutants into waterways and also the burning of fossil fuels which releases greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gases that become trapped in the Earth's atmosphere act like a blanket, preventing outgoing terrestrial radiation from escaping back into space. Average air temperatures rise and the secondary effect is an increase water temperatures.
Fish that cannot adapt quickly to warmer water become stressed and large scale fishkill is inevitable. However, the algae and bacteria that cause the eutrophication of oceans thrive quite well in warmer waters. By , rising temperatures could drive more than a million terrestrial plants and animals into extinction. If global temperatures continue to increase many or all of the following concerns can and will become a reality: Melting of Glacial Ice, most importantly the Greenland Ice Sheet and Polar Ice Caps, leading to Global sea level rise due to warm water expansion and incoming fresh water from melting glaciers resulting in Coastal flooding and erosion.
An increase in precipitation, especially at middle and high latitudes, with an increase in river runoff. A decrease in ocean salinity and a subsequent change in ocean current circulation patterns. Major shifts in ocean currents would affect both climate and species survival and possibly result in the extinction of many species, especially marine life. It is estimated that more than a million species may become extinct by the year Declining crops resulting in global starvation. Drinking water is less available.
Climate shifts - Droughts in areas that once experienced measurable rainfall amounts and higher than normal precipitation for other locations. Higher death tolls from: Heat stress Widespread disease In fact, the year set the all-time greenhouse gas record and levels continue to spiral upward. A substantial decrease in ocean salinity has been recorded over the last 30 years. The melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has accelerated to the point equivalent to a.
Warm water expands and so sea levels have risen 4 to 8 inches centimeters.
When Things Go Wrong—15 Tools Inspired By Eastern Wisdom to Find Stillness in a Storm Part I
Sea levels have risen 0. While there are those who debunk Global Warming believing Earth's temperature rise to be a natural, inter-glacial, phenomenon, most scientists tend to agree that a state of warming does exist and that humans are responsible for this temperature increase due to the addition of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over a short period of time. Then the movie The Day After Tomorrow comes along causing people to question, "Is this what will happen to our Earth's climate?
Earth is in a state of Global Warming but soon temperatures are about to drastically change. The Gulf Stream North Atlantic drift , referred to in the movie as the "ocean conveyor belt", is disrupted and abruptly stops flowing due to the melting of the polar ice caps and an influx of large volumes of fresh water into the oceans.
Since the Gulf Stream brings warm water from the tropics past the North American continent, then continues in a circular pattern across the Atlantic towards Western Europe, the climates of these continents are influenced by this warm water current. The disruption in the Gulf Stream circulation pattern results in a severe global deep freeze which sets the stage for the fictional drama in the film.
Abrupt Climate Change When scientists speak about abrupt climate change they mean within five or ten years up to a century.
For on-screen drama, events was compressed to a couple of days to weeks and, put simply, Ice Ages do not occur, nor do they retreat, overnight. Climate change has happened a couple of times over the last 13, years but, unlike in the movie, never in a few days time. A complete shut down of the Gulf Stream is possible and is believed to have happened in the geologic past however, it is not expected to occur within the 21st century.
Can Global Warming lead to Global Cooling? Yes it can, but not over several days as depicted in the movie.
Over geologic time Earth has gone through several ice ages followed by inter-glacial warming periods. One possible cause of major periods of glaciation is a change in the tilt of Earth's axis causing a corresponding change in the intensity and location of sun insolation. Shorter periods of much cooler temperatures have also occurred due to: A major volcanic eruption that causes pyroclastics to block and reduce incoming solar radiation resulting in cooler temperatures and a "year without a summer".
The ash from the eruption of Tambora in Indonesia cooled Earth so significantly that New England experienced June snowfalls and, throughout the summer months, crop failures were the norm in New England and also in northern Europe. A change in the circulation of ocean currents due to the melting of major Ice Sheets resulting in decreased salinity caused by the addition of large volumes of fresh melt water. The Younger Dryas and the " years before present" events were both drier periods with much colder temperatures.
They are believed to have resulted from melting glaciers and the subsequent alteration of the Gulf Stream current. Scientists are well aware of the delicate balance between 'cloud cover, aerosols, solar radiation and greenhouse gases' and resulting climatic changes.
It is absolutely possible that a state of global warming could lead to much colder temperatures for North America and Western Europe, however the timeframe for such an event would not be days or weeks but rather decades and the deep freeze would probably not reach Ice Age proportions. Two distinct factors that can lead to a state of cooling after a period of global warming are: Oceanic Circulation Patterns - Thermohaline Circulation As depicted in the movie, a disruption to the pattern of circulation in the Gulf Stream is a possibility that is based on sound scientific concerns.
The climates of North America and Europe are influenced by the Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current seen boxed in red on the illustration to the left. An interruption in this pattern of flow, either a decrease in the temperature of the Gulf Stream or a cessation of flow altogether would result in dramatic lowering of average temperatures for both continents.
The melting of Arctic sea ice and resulting disturbance of the Gulf Stream ocean current, could bring colder weather to Europe and North America and a rise in temperature for the southern hemisphere.
The unknown factor is how much of this Northern Hemisphere cooling would be offset by simultaneous atmospheric global warming. The Gulf Stream acts like a conveyor belt, moving in a circular pattern; a convection current driven by the density difference between warm, tropical salt water versus the colder water found at northern latitudes. An ocean current is like a river flowing through the ocean, at all times maintaining its integrity as one single body of water traveling on a distinct course.
As the Gulf Stream flows from equatorial regions, along the east coast of North America, two things happen. First, the warm current loses heat to the air, modifying coastal land temperatures. Second, because the Gulf Stream has lost heat, the current is now colder and so the water in current sinks. As the water sinks it flows back towards the tropics close to the ocean bottom.
Why is the melting of glacial ice such a problem for the Gulf Stream? Fresh water is less dense than salt water therefore, when a large volume of fresh water mixes with a salt water current, it may no longer be dense enough to sink.
This would slow down, if not stop, the Gulf Stream from continuing its present course, the end result being that temperatures, normally modified by its path, would drastically change In the past retreating glaciers dumped enough water into oceans to cause the North Atlantic branch of the Gulf Stream current to stop.
This occurred around 8, and 12, years ago and both times the climate cooled. Exactly how much fresh water is necessary to totally shut down the Gulf Stream is uncertain.
Experts say, "Watch the ice! Cloud Cover and Aerosols Higher temperatures increase the amount of cloud cover due to an increase in higher evaporation rates of surface water. Initially, the clouds will assist in trapping heat re-radiating from Earth's surface, adding to the global warming process and the continued rise in temperatures. However, cloud cover actually works against global warming. Clouds tend to block and reflect back into space any incoming solar radiation, increasing Earth's albedo.
After some time, global warming is no longer the main issue; instead global cooling conditions are a threat. How long the cooling will take after the initial warming is uncertain. Some models suggest approximately years, but cooling could come much sooner.
Another critical factor in both the formation of thicker, denser clouds and the blocking of sun insolation is aerosols; small particulates such as ash, soot, skin cells, sea salt, sulfates, pollutants and dust. Some of these particulates are natural in origin.
Since the industrial revolution however, humans have introduced an excessive amount of pollutants into the air through the burning of fossil fuels. Airborne aerosols are condenstion nuclei for cloud formation, causing water vapor to condense into more, but smaller, cloud droplets resulting in the thicker cloud cover seen over the past few decades. Ironically, though there is more cloud cover, there is less rain because the water droplets are too small and lightweight to fall.
In addition, aerosols tend to block and reflect sun energy even when they not part of a cloud formation. Yes but once again, not as abruptly, nor to the exaggerated degree as seen in the movie.
The next 6 sections deal with specific events in the film, exposing the good and the bad science for each meteorological disaster. Tornadoes Hit Los Angeles California has never experienced a tornado higher than an F1 on the F1 to F5 Fujita Scale nor have any fatalities occurred as a result of one. Generally speaking, there is a recent increase in the frequency of tornadoes in the United States.
However, it must be pointed out that technology used to detect and record tornadoes has significantly improved along with an increase in more stations capable of analyzing tornadic activity. Such a technological advance will inevitably detect the smaller, weaker and less damaging tornadoes that decades ago may have gone unrecorded.
On the Fujita Scale there has actually been a decline in the more severe tornadoes, those ranking F3 through F5. The erratic behavior of storms generated in a globally warmed climate cannot at this time be predicted with respect to exactly which locations will bear the brunt of increased violent weather activity.
Therefore, references made in the film with respect to tornadoes in Los Angeles neither depart from a possible reality nor are they supported by historical fact or computer-generated models of future weather patterns. Scientists do admit that more violent weather will occur with rising temperatures.
This is due to the fact that an increase in evaporation rates provides the atmosphere with more water vapor, the essential fuel for storm activity. Massive Storm in New Delhi and a Southward Advancing Ice Age While it is true that some areas would experience significant drops in temperature due to a change in ocean current circulation, global warming will not necessarily bring about a worldwide Ice Age.
Greenhouse gases trap heat and many locations on Earth will experience an increase in temperatures. Also, at this point in time, the Northern Hemisphere is receiving more incoming solar radiation than it did during the last ice Age 20, years ago. Hurricanes and Global Warming There has been a steady increase in Atlantic hurricane activity since and according to Kevin Trenberth and Dennis Shea of the National Center for Atmospheric Research NCAR , "Global warming accounted for around half of the extra hurricane-fueling warmth in the waters of the tropical North Atlantic in , while natural cycles were only a minor factor".
Fueling the hurricanes were ocean surface water temperatures 1.