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Chapter Three The Jewish Question To illustrate the history of the Jewish people from its earliest beginnings down through the ages to the present day, as seen and depicted by the Jewish mind itself, we give the following account from the Chicago Tribune, July 4, It was listened to almost in silence by about , people, the vast majority being Jews. Most of the performers, 3, actors and 2, choristers, were amateurs, but with their race's inborn gift for vivid drama, and to their rabbis' and cantors' deeply learned in centuries of Pharisee rituals, much of the authoritative music and pantomime was due.
Much of the drama's text was from the Talmud although the goy audience was told it was from the Old Testament and orthodox ritual of Judaism. The Tribune's correspondent related: Fisher, Chairman of the Jewish Day Committee, said in advance as to the whole idea of this pageant: Russia And The Khazars: In the later years of the dimly recorded first millennium of the Christian era, Slavic people of several kindred tribes occupied the land which became known later as the north central portion of European Russia.
South of them between the Don and Volga rivers and north of the lofty Caucasus Mountains lived a people known to history as Khazars. By slow stages the Khazars extended their territory eventually to the Sea of Azov and the adjacent littoral of the Black Sea. The Khazars were apparently a people of mixed stock with Mongol and Turkic affinities.
Before long the kingdom [khanate of the Khazars, as this tribe was known, stretched from the Caspian to the Black Sea. Its capital, Ityl, was at the mouth of the Volga River. Partly, perhaps, because of incipient tension between Christians and the adherents of the new Mohammedan faith,  and partly because of fear of becoming subject to the power of the Byzantine emperor or the Islamic caliph,  he adopted a form of the Jewish religion at a date generally placed at c.
This discussion convinced him that the Jewish faith was the most preferable, and he decided to embrace it. Thereupon he and about 4, Khazars were circumcised; it was only by degrees that the Jewish teachings gained a foothold among the population. Graetz gives further details: A successor of Bulan, who bore the Hebrew name of Obadiah, was the first to make serious efforts to further the Jewish religion. He invited Jewish sages to settle in his dominions, rewarded them royally, founded synagogues and schools After Obadiah came a long series of Jewish chagans, for according to a fundamental law of the state only Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne.
The significance of the term "ancient communities" cannot be here explained. For a suggestion of the "incorrect exposition" and the "tasteless misrepresentations" with which the Bible, i. Also in the Middle Ages, Viking warriors, according to Russian tradition by invitation, pushed from the Baltic area into the low hills west of Moscow.
Archaeological discoveries show that at one time or another these Northmen penetrated almost all areas south of Lake Ladoga and West of the Kama and Lower Volga rivers. Their earliest, and permanent, settlements were north and east of the West Dwina River, in the: They accepted Christianity as their religion.
The people of the new state devoted themselves energetically to consolidating their territory and extending its boundaries.
From the Khazars, who had extended their power up the Dnieper Valley, they took Kiev, which "was an important trading center even before becoming, in the 10th cent. The Slavs, especially those in the area now known as the Ukraine, were engaged in almost constant warfare with the Khazars and finally, by A.
For the gradual shrinking of the Khazar territory and the development of Poland, Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other Slavic states, see the pertinent maps in Historical Atlas, by William R.
The Judaized Khazars underwent further dispersion both north westward into Lithuanian and Polish areas and also within Russia proper and the Ukraine. In in Kiev "the Jewish community was uprooted, its surviving members finding refuge in towns further west"  along with the fleeing Russians, when the capital fell to the Mongol soldiers of Batu, the nephew of Genghis Khan. A short time later many of these expelled Jews returned to Kiev. Migrating thus, as some local power impelled them, the Khazar Jews became widely distributed in Western Russia.
The rulers of the Grand Duchy of Moscow also sought to exclude Jews from areas under its control. The rabbis sent for by Khakan Obadiah were educated in and were zealots for the Babylonian Talmud, which after long labors by many hands had been completed on December 2, In the thousands of synagogues which were built in the Khazar khanate, the imported rabbis and their successors were in complete control of the political, social, and religious thought of their people.
So significant was the Babylonian Talmud as the principal cause of Khazar resistance to Russian efforts to end their political and religious separatism, and so significant also are the modern sequels, including those in the United States, that an extensive quotation on the subject from the great History of the Jews, by Professor H.
Graetz  is here presented: The Talmud must not be regarded as an ordinary work, composed of twelve volumes; it possesses absolutely no similarity to any other literary production, but forms, without any figure of speech, a works of its own, which must be judged by its peculiar laws.
The Talmud contains much that is frivolous of which it treats with great gravity and seriousness; it further reflects the various superstitious practices and views of its Persian birthplace which presume the efficacy of demoniacal medicines, of magic, incantations, miraculous cures, and interpretations of dreams. It also contains isolated instances of uncharitable judgments and decrees against the members of other nations and religions, and finally it favors an incorrect exposition of the scriptures, accepting, as it does, tasteless misrepresentations.
More than six centuries lie petrified in the Talmud Small wonder then, that The Babylonian Talmud is especially distinguished from the Jerusalem or Palestine Talmud by the flights of thought, the penetration of mind, the flashes of genius, which rise and vanish again It was for this reason that the Babylonian rather than the Jerusalem Talmud became the fundamental possession of the Jewish race, its life breath, its very soul The intransigent attitude of the rabbis was increased by their realization that their power would be lost if their people accepted controls other than Talmudic.
These controls by rabbis were responsible not only for basic mores, but for such externals as the peculiarities of dress and hair. In Russian lands after the fall of Kiev in , there was a period of dissension and disunity. The struggle with the Mongols and other Asiatic khanates continued and from them the Russians learned much about effective military organization. In the Russian nobles boyars , desired a more stable government than they had had, and elected as their czar a boy named Michael Romanov, whose veins carried the blood of the grand dukes of Kiev and the grand dukes of Moscow.
Under the Romanovs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there was no change in attitude toward the Judaized Khazars, who scorned Russian civilization and stubbornly refused to enter the fold of Christianity. Prior to the nineteenth century the two occupants of the Russian throne best known in world history were Peter I, the Great, and Catherine II, the Great. In the West they characteristically sought alliances with one country or another, rather than ideological penetration.
Levinsohn was the first to express the opinion that the Russian Jews hailed not from Germany, as is commonly supposed, but from the banks of the Volga.
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He put in charge of the project of opening hundreds of Jewish schools a brilliant young Jew, Dr. These leaders believed correctly that the new education was designed to lessen the authority of the Talmud, which was the cause, as the Russians saw it, "of the fanaticism and corrupt morals of the Jews. The soul of Russian Jewry sensed the danger lurking in the imperial scheme.
He granted his people, including the Khazars, so many liberties that he was called the "Czar Liberator. The new freedom led, however, to results the "Liberator" had not anticipated.. The carriage was wrecked, and many of his escorts were injured. Alexander escaped as by a miracle, but a second bomb exploded near him as he was going to aid the injured. He was horribly mangled, and died within an hour.
Thus perished the Czar Liberator. The emigration continued under Nicholas II.
Many Jews remained in Russia, however, for "in the Jewish population of Russia amounted to 6,, Among the Jews who remained in Russia, which then included Lithrania, the Ukraine,  and much of Poland, were the founders of the Russian Bolshevik party: In was founded the Bond, the union of Jewish workers in Poland and Lithuania They engaged in revolutionary activity upon a large scale, and their energy made them the spearhead of the Party.
It has been also stated that the term Bolshevik refers to the "larger" or more violent program of the majority faction. After the Bolsheviki called their organization the Communist Party. The Communist Jews, together with revolutionaries of Russian stock, were sufficiently numerous to give the venture a promise of success, if attempted at the right time.
Israel, in Russia, suddenly found itself lifted out of its oppression and degradation. In a sealed train from Switzerland to the Russian border. Whatever the racial antecedents of their top man, the first Soviet commissariats were largely staffed with Jews.
The Jewish position in the Communist movement was well understood in Russia. Professor Fahey gives names and nationality of the members of the Council of Peoples Commissars, the Central Executive Committee, and the Extraordinary Commissions, and in summary quotes from Wilton as follows: According to the data furnished by the Soviet press, out of important functionaries of the Bolshevik State. As the decades passed by; after the fateful year , Judaized Khazars kept a firm hand on the helm of the government in the occupied land of Russia.
In due time they built a bureaucracy to their hearts' desire. Zabotin's notebook which contained the following entries: Noted chemist, about 40 years of age. Works in McGill University, Montreal. Is the best of the specialists on war on the American Continent. Gives full information on explosives and chemical plants. He is afraid to work. A lady friend of the Professor. In view of the facts furnished above as to the racial composition of the early Communist bureaucracy, it is perhaps not surprising that a large portion of the important foreign efforts of the present government of Russia are entrusted to Jews.
Finally notable in the list of current or recent exercisers of Soviet power in the satellite lands of Eastern Europe. Manuilsky, Dictator of the Ukraine; and many other persons highly placed in the governments of the several Eastern European countries are all said to be members of this new Royal Race of Russia.
Of Eastern European origin are the leaders of late nineteenth century and twentieth century political Zionism which flowered from the already recorded beginnings at Kattowitz in Chaim Weizmann, the head of political Zionism at the moment at the moment of its recourse to violence, was born in Plonsk, Poland.
As a number of writers have pointed out, political Zionism entered its violent phase after the discovery of the incredibly vast mineral wealth of Palestine. The intention of aggression at the expense of Moslem peoples, particularly in the direction of Iraq and Iran, is suggested also by the fact that the Eastern European Jews, adherents to the Babylonian Talmud, had long turned their thoughts to the lands where their sages lived and where most of the native Jewish population had embraced the Moslem faith.
Any possible Zionist religious motive such as the hope of heaven. This is especially true of atomic espionage. Communists, were all born in Russia or satellite lands. In this connection, it is important to stress the fact that the possession of a Western name does not necessarily imply Western European stock. The United States Government refused Canada's invitation early in to cooperate in Canada's investigation of atomic spies, but in when despite "red herring" talk of the Chief Executive our atomic spy suspects began to be apprehended, the first was Harry Gold, then Abraham Brothman, and Miriam Moskowitz.